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Published On:2016/04/08
Posted by somia zarad

Colon Cancer



Most people who are infected with colon cancer do not show any symptoms they have in the early stages of the disease. When colon cancer symptoms begin to appear, they vary from case to case, and be linked to tumor size and location within the colon.
Since colon cancer is becoming more prevalent cancers where colon cancer is the third most common types of cancer in the world, More than 1.5 million new infections a year, it becomes more dangerous once it is detected in late and it becomes very difficult to treat.
In This Article
  • Symptoms of colon cancer
  • The causes of colon cancer
  • The diagnosis of colon cancer
  • How stool refers to colon cancer?
  • The treatment of colon cancer
  • Prevention of colon cancer
  • 2 cups of coffee a day minimizes risk of colon cancer

May include symptoms of colon cancer include:

  • Changes in the activity of natural and normal intestine, manifested: diarrhea, constipation or changes in view of the stool and frequency of defecation, lasts for more than two weeks
  • Bleeding from the anus or the appearance of blood in the stool
  • Tightness in the abdominal area, reflected in: cramps (colic), gaseous swelling and pain
  • highlights accompanied by sorrows in the abdomen
  • Symptoms of colon cancer is also accompanied by a feeling that the stool was not emptied the bowel
  • Fatigue or weakness
  • Loss is not justified in weight
The presence of blood in the stool can indicate the presence of a cancerous tumor, but it can also refer to a variety of other health problems. If the blood red color of pale, can be seen on the toilet paper, the more likely source is Hemorrhoids (Piles / Hemorrhoids) or perhaps anal fissure (rip / crack in the anus - Anal fissure).

In addition, certain types of foods, such as beets or red licorice, may make the stool color red.
The iron alternatives (medicines that contain iron) and some types of drugs used to treat diarrhea, it is possible that the color of the stool turned to Black. But this does not imply the presence of symptoms of colon cancer.

However, despite all that is said, it is strongly advised to inspect any sign of bleeding (blood) in the stool, in a comprehensive and accurate, by the physician, because the presence of blood in the stool can indicate, in some cases, to more serious illness.

The causes and risk factors for colon cancer


Colon cancer consists, in general, when it gets a change in a group of healthy cells. Healthy cells grow and divide on a regular basis and coordinated with a view to the possibility of the body work and carry out his duties granted, normal and healthy. But cell growth and division process out of control, in some cases, continuing its cells divide and multiply even without that there will be a need for such a large number of cells. This excessive increase in the number (quantity) of cells in the colon and rectum area could be accompanied by the production of potential carcinogenesis cells (Precancerous) inside the colon inner casing.

During a very long period of time - it can reach up to several years - could spare some of these cells turn into cancer. In advanced stages of colon cancer, colon cancer can penetrate the wall of the colon and is spreading (Metastasis) to nearby lymph nodes or to other internal organs. As is the case in all types of cancer, there is still the real reason to be careful of colon cancer is not known, yet

pre-cancerous tumors (potential carcinogenesis - Precancerous) in the colon:

pre-cancerous tumors can arise anywhere along the colon, the muscular tube that forms the last part of the digestive tract. Colon consists of 120-150 cm at the top, called the "intestines", while as a "straight" (Rectum) of - 15 centimeters recent ones.

pre-cancerous tumors appear, often in the form of a block of cells (descendants / polyps - polypi) stand out from the wall of the colon. And show these descendants, sometimes, the mushroom shape. It can for these pre-cancerous tumors that show, too, as a spot flat, flat, or a cavity in the wall of the colon. This is a complex type of hand revealing, because it is very rare.

There are several types of polyps in the colon, including:

  • Adenoma (Adenoma): This type of liquid is the owner of the biggest possibilities of turning into cancer (or tumor), and are excised and removed, usually, through tests, such as screening colonoscopy (Colonoscopy) or sigmoidoscopy (Sigmoidoscopy)
  • (Hyperplastic polyps: This type of polyps is very rare, and is not a, usually, to be ground and the development of colon cancer.
  • nflammatory polyps: These polyps can be formed as a result of inflammation of the colon festering (or: colitis - Ulcerative Colitis). Some of these inflammatory polyps can turn cancerous. So, if someone is suffering from inflammatory bowel disease ulcerative there is a potential risk that the disease infected colon cancer.

Factors that can affect the likelihood of developing colorectal cancer include:

  • Age: about 90% of people who have been diagnosed with colon cancer are over the age of 50 years
  • Medical history: whether he was referring to the emergence of polyps in the colon or rectum
  • Inflammatory bowel disease
  • Genetic abnormalities have an effect on colon: genetic syndromes transmitted in the family from generation to generation can increase the risk of developing colon cancer. These syndromes are responsible for 5% of all cases of colon cancer. One of these genetic syndromes called polyposis family glandular tumor (Familial adenomatous polyposis - FAP), a rare cause the emergence of thousands of polyps in the intestinal walls inside the rectum syndrome.
People with FAP syndrome is processed without increasing their risk of disease, colon cancer, until they reach the age of 45 years, by more than 90%. Another syndrome is Lynch syndrome (Lynch syndrome) - or: HNPCC - which is more prevalent than FAP syndrome. People with HNPCC syndrome are more likely to develop colon cancer at an early age. These Almtlazeman, FAP and HNPCC, can be detected by genetic testing them. If family history refers to the injury of a family member in one of the two twin, it is necessary to inform your physician and find him in the necessary tests are conducted and submit it.
  • Family history: If they are in the family from previous injuries, disease, colon cancer or bowel or colon Bslail
  • Diet: colorectal cancer may be linked to low dietary fiber or high in fat and calories
  • Physical activity: lack of, or lack of, the practice of physical activity
  • Diabetes
  • obesity
  • Smoking
  • Alcohol: excessive quantities of alcohol can increase the risk of developing colon cancer
  • Disorders of growth hormone
  • Radiation treatments for cancer

The diagnosis of colon cancer


Conducting routine tests for the detection of colon cancer is the favorite and is recommended from the age of 50 years for all the people who could be in the list of people at risk of colon cancer. There are several tests - each with its own pros and cons. It is important to talk with your physician about the options available to each person to be a joint decision about any of these tests is the most convenient in-kind situation.

There are several options for colonoscopy:

● annual examination for the detection of occult blood in the stool
● examination of DNA (DNA) in the stool - although it is not yet clear how much time one has to wait for the examination and the following
● examination of laparoscopic sigmoid (sigmoidoscopy) - once every 5 years
● examination double contrast injection (Double contrast enema) - once every 5 years
● colonoscopy (colonoscopy) - once every 10 years
● virtual colonoscopy (Virtual colonoscopy) - once every 5 years

Most types of colon cancer is generated and the evolution of polyps (polyps) adenocarcinoma. The survey process that can reveal polyps, even before they turn into cancer cells. It can also help, too, in the detection of colon cancer during the early stages when cure ratio is still too high.

Tests for the detection and diagnosis of colon cancer may also include the following:

  • Occult blood test: This test examines stool sample
  • Deoxyribonucleic acid - DNA-from stool specimens: This test covers several nucleic acid analysis is originating cells were produced by the descendants of pre-cancer into the stool
  • Sigmoidoscopy: is to examine the internal parts of the colon. In this test, the doctor uses a light flexible tube to inspect the colon from the inside for a distance of up to about 60 centimeters inside the colon
  • Barium enema: This test allows the doctor examine the colon with the help of X-rays (rays Rntjn - X - ray). The barium is a pigment (Pigment) reflector be admitted to the colon by enema
  • Colonoscopy (Colonoscopy): This test is similar to a large extent to examine sigmoidoscopy, but the tool used in the colonoscopy is a long hose, tight and flexible belted with a video camera and screen allows the physician preview of the colon and rectum, the Toulhma, thereby detecting colon cancer.
  • Virtual colonoscopy-Arthroscopy by computed tomography device (Computed Tomography - CT): Although this examination is available in all medical centers, but it is an important one for scanning and imaging option. This test uses computed tomography system (CT) for the production of photographic plates of the colon, rather than the use of equipment that is inserted into the intestine through the anal opening.

Detection of cancer of the form of stool

A report recently published by the newspaper "Daily Mail" the British that there are some symptoms of human feces and indicate higher chances of suffering from colon cancer, most notably losing stool hardness and it becomes in a liquid state, and despite the fact that some people may become infected this offer on a temporary basis, However, the continued for a period of longer than 3 weeks may indicate colon cancer, you should consult a doctor immediately. The report warned of another case where a person may be infected with colon cancer without knowing it, the appearance of drops of blood with red color bright, and sometimes it's the color red stool dark, and other symptoms of colon cancer: a decrease in the weight has no apparent reason, and also feeling tired and fatigue severe without reason. The report added that there is a set of tips that reduce the risk of colon cancer, and include the reduction of alcohol and fried potatoes, and sweets and high-fat meat, must also be a lot of fish, vegetables and fruits, whole grain intake.

Stages of the development of colon cancer:  


After confirmation the diagnosis of disease, colon cancer, being physician several tests to assess the degree of the disease or the extent of cancer in the body. And helps calibrator colon cancer to determine the quality and method of treatment best suited and most beneficial.

Evaluation of the progress of the disease tests also include CT imaging of the abdominal cavity (Abdominal cavity) or X-ray imaging of the chest area. 
Stages of colon cancer are offered according to the following:



Phase 0 (zero) - the cancerous tumor is still in its initial stages. Colon cancer did not sleep or spread, yet, out of the inner lining (mucosa) of the colon or rectum. At this point it can be described as a cancer metastasis (Carcinoma) local.

Phase 1 (first) - the cancerous tumor had grown and spread to the outside of the lining of the colon, but he did not move to the outside wall of the colon or rectum, after.

Phase 2 (second) - the cancerous tumor had grown, spread and cut through the wall of the colon or rectum, but has yet to nearby lymph nodes move.

Phase 3 (Third) - cancerous tumor had grown, spread and arrived in neighboring lymph nodes, but it does not affect the other organs in the body, yet.

Stage 4 (fourth) - the cancerous tumor had grown and spread widely in the body, for example, have been moved to another, such as the liver or lungs, internal organs, or to the membrane that encases the abdominal cavity, or to one of the ovaries (in women).

Tumor reappear, again and again - this means that the cancer has reappeared after treatment. There is a possibility that the re-emergence of cancer inside the colon, rectum or in any other member of the body.

Treatment of colon cancer


Respect to the treatment of colon cancer, which could be recommended by the physician, to a large extent, stage reached by the type of cancer.

The three main types of treatment are: surgical treatment, chemical treatment and radiotherapy.
Surgery is considered for colectomy key solution to address colon cancer.
As for the size of the part that will be excised (removed) from the colon during the surgery, or whether there was a kind of therapeutic extra Other, Kalmaaljh radiological, chemical, constitute an appropriate solution for this patient or that related to several factors including: location of the tumor is cancerous, the depth at which drilled (breached) in the wall of the colon cancer and whether the cancer has moved (the outbreak) to lymph nodes or other internal organs in the body.
Surgical procedures
The surgeon will remove part of the colon that contains the cancer, along with extra edges of the healthy tissues surrounding it from all sides, so as to ensure the removal of the cancerous tumor all, completely. In addition, they are usually, too, the removal of lymph glands located next to the large intestine in order to be previewed and inspected to make sure there are no more cancer cells in them. The surgeon can usually reconnect the healthy remainder of the colon with the rectum.
If this is not possible (if the tumor is located at the end of the colon, for example) may be needed to Vgrh (Stoma), temporarily or permanently. Vgrh is opened in the wall of the colon and conveying to them a special bag Plots droppings and secretions in the intestines to him. This Alfgrh may be temporary, sometimes, in order to assist intestine and rectum on the recovery and healing after surgery. However, you may be needed in other times, to keep open a Alfgrh Dim.
Surgery for cancer prevention
In some very rare cases, such as the existence of genetic factors, such as the descendants of glandular tumor syndrome, or syndromes, inflammatory bowel, such as ulcerative colitis, a specialist tumors are advised, on the whole, to eradicate entirely of the colon and rectum removed on Tuesday completely, so as to prevent the emergence of cancerous tumors in them, in the future .
  
Surgery for early stages of cancer
If the tumor is small in size, and are stationed inside a descendant in the initial stage of evolution very early, registered the surgeon to remove the entire tumor during screening colonoscopy. But if the tests showed that the tumor is not found in polyps base - the location where the polyps linked to colon wall - it is very likely that he has been the removal of the cancerous tumor completely.
Surgery for advanced stages of colon cancer
If the cancer has reached a very advanced stage, or if the public health situation is dire and the weak, the best solution may be, perhaps, surgery to open a blockage in the colon, which alleviates the symptoms that cause distress and suffering.

Two cups of coffee a day minimizes risk of cancer, "colon"



A recent US study showed that eating a cup to two cups of coffee a day can reduce the risk of cancer, "colon", and the greater the number of cups of coffee reduced the risk of infection by larger amounts.

The researchers said cancer of the University of Southern California Center of America, said that all types of coffee contain compounds limit the growth of colon cancer cells, and published their findings Friday in the journal "American Association for Cancer Research."

To test the effect of coffee in the reduction of colorectal cancer, the researchers tracked the case of more than five thousand and 100, of the men and women who have been diagnosed with colorectal cancer, within 6 months of injury, in addition to
Track the status of four thousand men and women who did not have the disease.

And monitoring of the research team, the daily consumption of coffee all kinds of participants in the study, the questionnaire contained information on many other factors that affect the risk of colorectal cancer, including family history of cancer, diet, physical activity and smoking.

The data showed that moderate consumption of coffee which a cup to two cups of coffee a day was associated with a reduced risk of colorectal cancer by 26%, after controlling for other risk such as nutritional programs, physical activity and smoking factors.

The researchers found that eating one and a half cups of coffee a day, was associated with a reduced risk of colorectal cancer by as much as 50%, and that was with all kinds of coffee, whether caffeinated Owalkhalah them.

And the secret to that, the researchers said that coffee contains many elements that contribute to improving the efficiency of the colon and rectum, which contain protective properties Kalcavien and substance "polyphenols", which can act as antioxidants, and limit the potential for colon cancer cell growth, and strengthen defenses the body against disease.

He said research team leader Dr. Stephen Gruber, director of the Cancer Center of the University of Southern California "We found that the greater the amount of coffee, which covered people decreased their risk of colorectal cancer."

According to the American Cancer Society, the colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer in the United States, it affects more than 95 thousand new cases per year and is the fourth leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide.

Prevention of colon cancer


Lifestyle changes to reduce the risk of injury:
There are many steps that one can take to reduce the risk of colon cancer, and so by making some changes in his lifestyle, including:

● Eat plenty of fruits, vegetables and whole grains
● reduction of fat, especially saturated fat
● follow a balanced and varied diet in order to increase the amount of vitamins and minerals needed by the body
● reduce the consumption of alcoholic beverages
● Stop smoking
● physical activity and maintaining a healthy weight

You should consult your doctor about medications that can be taken to reduce the risk of exposure to the disease.

It has been demonstrated that there are certain medications reduce the likelihood of the emergence of the descendants of pre-cancer or colon cancer. In any case, we do not have enough evidence to permit recommendation to take these drugs for people who are at risk of injury colon cancer:

● aspirin (Aspirin)
● medicines to Asteroydah anti-inflammatory (NSAIDS) but not aspirin
● Celebrex (Celebrex)

By: Samia

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Posted by somia zarad on 11:08 PM. Filed under . You can follow any responses to this entry through the RSS 2.0. Feel free to leave a response

By somia zarad on 11:08 PM. Filed under . Follow any responses to the RSS 2.0. Leave a response

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